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Taking out tissue sample and then measuring on different parameters to find out the reason of abnormality of the body. There are different types of biopsy; those are Bone marrow, Endoscopic, Needle, Skin Biopsy, and Surgical Biopsy.Excisional biopsy is a procedure where an entire lump or suspicious area is removed without attempting to remove the entire lesion or tumour, incisional biopsy or core biopsy samples a portion of the abnormal tissue, needle aspiration biopsy is a procedure where sample of tissue or fluid with a needle in such a way that that cells are removed without preserving the histological architecture of the tissue cells.

Science dealing with study of tissue is histology whereas science dealing with cell is cytology. Thus both are derived from various organs of human body.After spontaneously shed by the body ("spontaneous exfoliation"), or manually scraped/brushed off of a surface in the body, cells are collected. When cells of the pleural cavity or peritoneal cavity are shed into the pleural or peritoneal fluid it is an example of spontaneous exfoliation.Removed for examination in a process commonly known as grossing or cut up here the pathologist then a looks at the tissue sample and selects the part if a large sample is provided e.g. from a surgical procedure most likely to yield a useful and accurate diagnosis.

Branch of science dedicated on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse.Those deaths where there is an unknown cause or considered unnatural are investigated and done by a "forensic pathologist", medical examiner, or hybrid medical examiner-coroner offices.For other issues raised by the death to be addressed the autopsy also provides an opportunity, such as the determination of the identity of the deceased or collection of trace evidence. To determine the chemical cause of accidental overdoses or deliberate poisonings they collect and interpret toxicological specimens of body tissues and fluids. The forensic pathologist examines and documents wounds and injuries at autopsy, occasionally in a clinical setting at the scene of a crime.

Dermatologists are professionals dealing with skin pathology. Thus they are specialized on human skin, nails and hair.By anatomic distributions, and behaviour recognizing most skin diseases based on their appearances. Resulting in a specific diagnostic interpretation reveals the histology of the disease, sometimes a skin biopsy is taken to be examined or are subject to other molecular tests under the microscope.

Extremely trained professionals dealing with human nervous system examining through radiology study and tissue sample to determine the root cause of abnormality of tissue or mimic of a tumour.Autopsy from the brain and spinal cord, neuropathology consists largely of examining. To aid in diagnosis of disease the work of the biopsy tissue are done through the eyes, muscles, surfaces of organs, and tumours. Tissues are also observed after a mass is detected by radiologic imaging, the biopsy is usually requested.

This branch of science deals with the characterizations and diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of lungs and thoracic pleura. Bronchoscopy and trans bronchial biopsy. Four general categories of diseases of the lung can be classified into: obstructive lung disease; restrictive lung disease; infectious disease; and neoplastic disease. The forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, which is decreased in obstructive lung disease and normal in restrictive lung disease this is the key clinical difference between obstructive and restrictive lung disease. 

Deals with diagnosis and characterization of medical disease related to pathology of kidney (non tumour) working closely with nephrologist and transplant surgeons. In the academic setting, renal pathologist is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that deals with the diagnosis and characterization of medical diseases of the kidneys. Renal pathologists work closely with nephrologists and transplant surgeons, who typically obtain diagnostic specimens via percutaneous renal biopsy.

Hematopathology or hemopathology deals with any abnormality or disease of the blood fluid including RBCs and WBCs along with plasma. Organs effecting such as bone marrow spleen and thymus are also diagnosed.Pathology residents (anatomic, clinical, or combined) who have completed hematopathology fellowship training after their pathology residency are board-eligible or board-certified hematopathologists. One or two years a hematopathology fellowship lasts. Hematopathologist are physician who practices hematopathology.

Laboratory test plays an extreme role in diagnosis as the accuracy of the result thus helps in the monitoring the patient condition resulting in reducing the risk and error in treatment.As defined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) a quality indicator should take objective measure evaluating critical health care domains (patient safety, effectiveness, equity, patient centeredness, timeliness, and efficiency). Implemented in a consistent and comparable manner across settings and over time, it is based on evidence associated with those domains. In other words, by selecting a certain comparative criterion a quality indicator is a tool enabling us to quantify the laboratory’s performance. Primarily two inclusion criteria needs to be fulfilled by any potential quality indicator: it must cater to at least 1 IOM health care domain and it must be an indicator of laboratory functioning.

Thus various equipment’s are being used in the laboratory for determination of the parameters resulting in reduction of risk and error in treatment procedure. Attribution to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be avoided. Hazardous chemical requires proper use of laboratory equipment. This session discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories. It is essential to maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment parts to avoid any type of error while evaluation. 

Branch of science dealing with animal body tissue and body fluid regarding diagnosis and treatment of various abnormality and diseases. Thus this branch is specialized for conducting animal health through different parameters and measures.There are two main types of veterinary pathologists: anatomical pathologists and clinical pathologists. Anatomical pathologists (who mainly work with body tissues – biopsies and autopsies) generally perform autopsies on animals to determine the cause of death and disease. They will test in the laboratory and examine organs and tissues and take samples. Clinical pathologists (who mainly work with body fluids – haematology, biochemistry and cytology) monitor diseases and study changes in the chemical make-up of body fluids to diagnose. 

Diseases caused in plants through other pathogens or by the environment are taken care by this specialized pathologist. Organisms such as fungi, oomycetes (water molds), bacteria, virus, viroid causing infectious disease. For reliable production of food, control of plant diseases is crucial, and it provides significant problems in agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs. Plants carry inherent disease resistance in both natural and cultivated populations 

This is a very important part of the treatment system because it results in reducing the cost of the total treatment process. Primary care is very important for infectious disease because it results in prevention of any further spreading of the pathogens affecting the host cells.Depending on the type of problem, they may perform a physical examination. Including blood studies and cultures of wounds or body fluids, laboratory studies are often necessary. For indicating the presence of unusual or uncommon diseases they may order blood serum antibodies studies. What a general internist may already have done, these studies may help explain the results of those studies.

Specified animal pathogens are infectious agents, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, including pathogen when introduced into a biological system in which the nucleic acid is capable of replicating.Than livestock production, foreign animal diseases affect more. A country’s ability to export animals and animal-related products can shut down if there is a threat of disease in one state alone. Economic costs related to disease control and eradication can reach millions of dollars, the loss of animal life can be devastating. Economic disturbances include limited travel and apprehension among vacationers to visit the Sunshine State; thus the damage resulting from foreign animal disease does not stop with the agriculture industry.

Fatal growth, infancy, and child development type of diseases laboratory diagnosis are to be done by these specialised. There are many conditions which are seen only in infants although some diseases seen in paediatrics are the same as that in adults, where the organs follow growth patterns and phases; the specialty has to take in account the dynamics of a growing body from pre-term infants to large adolescents.


Molecular pathology includes dealing with nucleic acid. Anatomic pathology and clinical pathology , molecular biology ,biochemistry, proteomics and genetics shares some aspects of practice with Molecular pathology sometimes considered a crossover discipline focuses mainly on the sub-microscopic aspects of disease.Genetic rearrangements provide a great target for many molecular diagnostic tests in oncology, being an inherent part of oncogenesis. Distant segments of our genomic DNA are rearrange juxtapose. New fusion (chimeric) genes are formed by bringing nucleic acid sequences closer together, through deletions of intervening DNA sequences or chromosomal translocations.

Plant pathology is about the science, which is concerned with the study of plant diseases and their causes, saprophytes may be present resulting the appearance of bacterial growth in or on plant tissues.Due to their associated economic losses and environmental impacts and having a negative impact in agriculture phytopathogenic bacteria affect a wide range of crops worldwide. They pose a threat to global food production, together with other biotic and abiotic stress factors. Therefore, essential step toward the development of new strategies to control plant diseases is, understanding bacterial survival strategies. Formation of persister cells is one of the mechanism used by bacteria to survive under stress conditions.

Clinical treatment of mental illness, or research into the origin, most notably, psychiatrists and clinical psychologists are particularly interested in this area and may either be involved in. The term ‘pathology’ refers to disease, in psychiatry. However, it is a contentious point viewing mental problems as a disease. Counselling psychologists, Psychotherapists, and counsellors (those specialise in mind matters and are not medics), not necessarily related to pathology, view apparent mental dysfunction as mental distress. So, the term ‘disorder’ is used, rather than ‘disease’. Other words for diagnosing distress within the mind remain: ‘symptoms’ meaning ‘signs’, ‘aetiology’ meaning ‘cause’, and ‘prognosis’ meaning ‘expected outcome’.

Clinical Biochemistry, Hematology and Clinical Microbiology with facility of patients’ investigations, teaching and research in the respective areas, both pre-analytical and analytical procedures are conducted mostly by automated machines with an all time check on quality of results. Metrology the science of measurement laboratory medicine also is about it. Regardless of where, when, and by which method the testing occurs, clinical laboratorian want test results to be the same. Laboratory medicine is a leader in (beyond routine patient care), identifying and conducting further analysis on new biomarkers of health and disease, medical research, innovating new devices and measurement methods,  and ensuring that testing performed in clinical trials meets the highest standards.

Surgical pathology allows case where tissue is surgically removed from a patient for definitive diagnosis of disease. Examination of the tissue, and evaluations of molecular properties of the tissue may involve immunohistochemistry or other laboratory tests. Services in a wide variety of organ systems and medical subspecialties are often provided by the surgical pathologist consultation. Surgical pathologists provide second opinions and also diagnostic information. For example, during surgery pathologist can help the surgeon to determine while performing breast cancer surgery whether to remove lymph nodes under the arm as well, or a surgical pathologist's exam of tissues removed.